Standard curb ramps: cut back into the pavement with flared sides providing transition in three directions.
Returned curb ramps: providing slope in one direction. This could be a dangerous measure if the sides are not protected.
Build up curb ramp: usually with flared edges.
Ø Curb ramps are wherever there is a difference in level on pedestrian paths or cross paths.
Ø To avoid confusing sightless pedestrians, curb ramps should be positioned out of the usual line of pedestrian flow. The unobstructed width of the pathway should be not less than 0.90m.
Ø Curb ramps should be located away from places where water accumulates.
b. Directional Signage
Ø Graphic or written directions should be used to indicate clearly the type and location of the available facility.
Ø Directional signs need not be excessive in number, but they should be placed at main entrances and in places where changes in direction or level occur.
Ø All types of signs should be visible, clear, simple, easy to read and understand, and properly lit at night.
Ø Signs should not be placed behind glass because of possible reflection.
Figure 5 : Disabled graphic signage
Ø Signage placed on the pedestrian path of travel are considered obstructions, thus, they should be detectable.
Ø Accessible spaces and facilities should be identified by the international symbol of accessibility. Ø Contrasting colours should be used to differentiate the figure from the background.
Ø The symbol is composed of a wheelchair figure with either a square background or a square border.
d. Maps And Info Panels
Ø Maps and information panels at building entrances, along roads, and on public buildings should be placed at a height between 0.90m and 1.80m.
Ø Information signboards should be rectangular
Ø Warning signboards should be triangular.
Ø Interdictory signboards should be circular.
Ø The colour of signs should contrast with the surrounding surface so as to be clearly distinguishable.
Figure 6 : Maps and info panels for disabled.
Ø The commonly used colours are: white, black, yellow, red, blue and green.
Ø The colour combinations Red/Green and Yellow/Blue should not be used in order to avoid confusing colour blind persons.
e. Parking Curb
Figure 7 : Parking curb for disabled convenience.
Ø If curb exists, curb ramps should be provided to link accessible parking spaces to accessibility pathways.
Ø If no curb exists, a textured surface at least 0.60m wide is needed to separate the pathway from the vehicular area; otherwise bollards should be used. Pre-cast wheelstops can also be used to set apart a passage at least 0.90m wide.
Ø The drop-off area should be at least be 3.60m wide and incorporate an aisle 1.20m wide to allow for maneuring.
Ø The length should accommodate at least two cars.
f. Drop-Off Areas
Ø Signs should be installed to identify a drop-off zone and prevent its misuse as a parking space.
Figure 8 : Drop-off areas
g. Tactile Marking
Ø On a guide strip where alternative routes exist or at junction of guide strips.
Ø Around obstructions which are difficult for the sightless to detect.
Ø A tactile guiding area, preferably or rubber tiles with minimum dimensions of 0.90m x 0.90m, should be constructed in a guide strip at cross pathways where the route branches off in several directions.
Figure 9 : Tactile marking size
Ø Safety guards or railing should be installed around hazardous areas, stairs, ramps and raised platforms more than 0.40m high.
Ø To guide sightless people using a long cane, a rail should be mounted at a height between 0.10 and 0.15m.
Figure 10: Handrail
Ø Handrail should allow a firm and easy grip, sharp edges should be avoided.
i. Drinking Fountain
Ø Drinking fountain spout should be located at approximate height og 0.90m.
Ø Drinking fountains can have two spout located at6 different heights, one convenience to wheelchair users at approximately 0.85m and one at approximately 0.95m for non-disabled people.
j. Resting Area
Figure 12 : Resting area considered the disabled people.
Ø Resting facilities should be provided regular intervals between 100.00m and 200.00m.
Ø Resting space with benches should allow a minimum of 1.20m of adjoining space for a wheelchair.
Ø Public seats and benches should be approximately 0.45m above floor level, with backrests at approximately 0.70 above floor level.
Ø Overhanging vegetation should be clipped to a minimum clear height of 2.00m.
Figure 13 : Overhanging vegetation
2. General Guidelines
Figure 14 : Typical road section
Ø Road landscape reserve is 20’ and 40’.
Ø Road planting selected considered shading trees, shrubs and coloured plants.
Ø Uniform the road planting for make identity and emphasize the road characteristic.
Ø Planting distance for road planting is:
1. Main trees 7m -10m
2. Shrubs 0.45 – 0.60m
3. Ground covers 0.3m
Ø The covered drainage is provided next to the pathways.
Ø Level control – the water level of the lake has to be controlled to avoid any changes to the natural state of the lake.
Ø Water life control – to make sure that water life does not become extinct.
Ø An activity that is allowed – water activities (water recreation), land activities (land recreational, public amenities and utilities).
Ø Activities that is forbidden – water (swimming, termination of solid waste)
Ø A variety of plants, trees and vegetation should be used.
Ø Building must face the lake.
c. Car Park
Figure 15 : Car park for disabled
Ø Buffer zone surrounded the car park provides screening and reduce noise and air pollutions.
Ø Trees are to be planted in the car park to reduce heat and glare.
Ø Car park should provide space for disabled car park and drop areas nearby the parking entrance.
Ø The selected trees should considered:
1. Low maintenance 2. Evergreen trees 3 . No wide root spread trees 4. No fruit trees 5. Shade trees
(Source: Town And Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia, 2002)
- Every ramp must be user friendly and without restrictions.
- The maximum escarpment should be 1 : 12 with a minimum of 1800mm.
- The surface of the ramp must be flat but not a smooth texture.
Ø Handrail and grab
- A dimension of 40mm – 50mm is provided with the ramp.
- The handrail height is 2.4’(700mm) and 3’
- Ramp and handrail must be provided to the entrance door must have a minimum width surface lanes texture.
- Pathways lanes without any restrictions.
- Minimum width is 1500mm.
- The surface of the pathways lane must be smooth to avoid unwanted accidents.
- Pathways should provide guide strip with tactile marking for blind users.
- Handrail should provide at the pathways near the lake.
(Source: Town And Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia, 2002)
e. Children Playground
Ø Stresses on safety aspects like “traffic calming” with nearby road and all surfaces should be provided with rubber matts to ensure normal children and disabled children are safety.
Ø The playground equipment should consider the weight stability and the design has to be suitable according to the age groups as well as the disability.
Ø To provide playing equipment that stimulates mental and physical activities.
Ø The location must be suitable, so parents can keep watching their kids.
Ø The design of the playing equipment must be colourful, beautiful, attractiveness and children friendly.
Ø The equipment should be easy to maintain.
f. Public Facilities
Ø To provide public facilities such as parking lots for normal and disabled people, public toilets, information centre, public phones, wakaf, surau, drinking fountain, children playground, exercise area and sports area / court that is suitable with the surrounding development.
g. Softscape Elements
Figure 16 : Symmetrical balance design
Figure 17 : Variety of plant design
Figure 20 : Balance can be generate by using a same tree shape
Figure 21 : Planting should followed the hierarchy of plants.
Ø The softscape elements should be suitable and endemic to match with the garden concept and also the surrounding.
Ø The softscape element should considered:
1. Aesthetical value
2. Shading tree
3. Convenience and comfortable
4. Identity (have it own characteristic)
5. Trees planting function as a control of the erosion process for the aesthetical value and to increase ecological balance.
6. For playground area, tree selected should consider no poisonous tree, shade tree, and no wide root spread tree.
Ø For small area or limited space, planter box and vase should be provided especially for greening the area.
h. Hardscape Elements
Ø The hardscape elements at the main area will be provided such as children playground, sports area and exercise area.
Ø The hardscape elements should considered:
1. Identity (have its own characteristic)
2. Functional and aesthetical.
3. Can emphasize the area.
i. Supporting Amenities
Ø Sign boards
- Must be placed horizontally with a minimum height of 2000mm from road or pathway level.
- Writing, colour and the size of the signboard must be clear and easy to read.
- To provide a sign board with Braille writing.
Ø Built in or fixed furniture
- Furniture in this area should consider the disabled.
- A comfortable, suitable in design and user friendly for all park users.
- Provision of ramps, lamps, integrated sign boards, drinking fountain & trash bins.